Flat Damage for GURPS

One of the things about GURPS that can be confusing is how damage is calculated. Unlike other systems where your attribute provides a bonus or penalty and the weapon provides the dice you roll, in GURPS your attribute provides the dice you roll and the weapon provides a bonus or penalty. Not a huge difference, but I’ve seen it derail new players. I wanted to put together a couple of tables to use if you want to run GURPS with flat damage – no dice rolls. This is obviously simpler, and also more predictable, but by removing the swingy results from damage results, you also remove the chance that you’ll roll to penetrate an opponents Damage Resistance if it is higher than your average roll.

I’d get through this in a couple of ways. One is to keep either the random hit location table, or allow called shots, or ideally both. This way, a low-strength attacker can still get past armor if they are accurate, or lucky. Also, damage types retain their multipliers – cutting damage times 1.5 after armor, and impaling damage times 2.

For our purposes, 1d6 is going to equal 4 and 2d6 is going to equal 7. I only adapted ST 3-20, and then took the weapon table from GURPS Lite 4E and adapted those basic weapons. Once the ST table is changed over, though, the weapon table doesn’t have to change. It’s just here for reference.

Strength Thrust damage Swing damage
3 -1 0
4 -1 0
5 0 1
6 0 1
7 1 2
8 1 2
9 2 3
10 2 4
11 3 5
12 3 6
13 4 6
14 4 7
15 5 8
16 5 9
17 6 9
18 6 10
19 6 11
20 6 12


Weapon (GURPS Lite 4e) Thrust Swing
Axe +2 cut
Mace +3 crush
Punch -1 crush
Kick +0 crush
Brass knuckles +0 crush
Broadsword +1 crush +1 cut
Thrusting broadsword +2 imp +1 cut
Large knife +0 imp -2 cut
Poleaxe +2 cut or +2 crush
Rapier +1 imp
Shortsword +0 imp +0 cut
Spear +2 imp
2H Spear +3 imp
Quarterstaff +2 crush +2 crush
Thrusting greatsword +3 imp +3 cut


Advancement Systems In RPG Design


Image result for leveling meme

I recently had a fun conversation with a friend of mine who is designing a tabletop RPG about what kind of advancement system to use for his game. It got me thinking about the pros and cons of all of the various methods games use for character advancement, mostly in tabletop but also drawing from video games. I thought I would lay out the various options as I saw them and discuss each in turn, both as a way to organize my thoughts a bit further and also to show the wide variety of methods there are out there.

How you use an advancement system for your game is a core question both for game designers and also for those running games. Many advancement systems leave a lot of flexibility based on play style – one D&D game for example might have characters leveling every four or five sessions of play, and another might have them leveling every session. One is a story of slow development where there have to be a lot of rewards that aren’t experience points while the other is a roller-coaster ride to power that won’t leave as much time for character development, since everyone will always be learning and trying out their new abilities. Designers should let GMs know where they think the “sweet spot” is for their game, as this can be a very helpful guide. Trial-and-error also works, but can lead to a lot more frustration among players.

Experience and Leveling (D&D)

Of course, the granddaddy system, the default in most people’s minds, is leveling. You accumulate experiences points doing whatever it is that the game wants to reward, and when you hit a particular break-point you have a sudden increase in your character’s abilities. This is true of many RPGs whether on console or tabletop, and was the method introduced by D&D and many of the very first tabletop RPGs forty years ago.

The important thing here is that the game gives experience points for what you want players and characters to be doing most often. In fact, if you want to know what a game is about, look to what it rewards – and if your game rewards something that you don’t want your game to be about, change your experience system. (This is true for all of the advancement methods I’ll discuss, and also true for any reward system or cycle you have in your game, period.) Reward the behavior you want. Don’t give experience points for killing monsters in your supposed political intrigue game.

You also want to have your level progression lean toward incremental and not be too jarring. Unless it is an intentional aspect of your game, a character shouldn’t be twice as capable after achieving a single level. Not only is it ‘unrealistic’, it is jarring to the fiction. Suddenly, things that were dire threats to you last session are a breeze now because you crossed an arbitrary threshold. Thing through how often you think characters should level – multiple times per session? Every two or three sessions? Every month of play? Etc. And tune your game accordingly.

Incremental Leveling (D&D 4E, D&D Online)

Kind of a subset to the above is something I really liked about Dungeon & Dragons Online, and how it used leveling to make the experience of play more similar to other MMOs (where there tend to be 100 or so levels, each only slightly different from the others). I’ve written about it here in the past, but in brief, DDO took each level in D&D and broke it into 10 mini-levels that were incremental points between. So, for example, instead of being 10% more likely to hit an enemy, you would be 1% more likely at each increment. Instead of 10 hit points, you would get 1. Ten of those increments would add up to a full level that one might recognize from the tabletop version of D&D.

D&D 4th Edition did something similar by making the three tiers of play explicit. First the Heroic tier, from level 1 to 10, then the Paragon tier from 11 to 20, and then the Epic tier from 21 to 30. At each tier different abilities became available, and it was intentional that there be a bigger difference between 10 and 11 than between 9 and 10 for example.

Advancement through Failure (Powered by the Apocalypse games)

When thinking of earning experience or character points or whatever it is that makes a character advance, we often think of achievement. Starting with Apocalypse World, there have been a series of games that root advancement in failure. Generally speaking, in games based on AW, you mark experience or gain experience when you fail in a roll. This is in part so that you can ‘fail forward’, so to speak, and I’ve also found it to be an encouraging aspect of these systems for people who feel like they don’t roll well. It’s also fun to crap out on an important roll, knowing it’ll hurt, but sit back and say, “You know, I learned something today…”

This is really just an example of another type of behavior  you want to reward – specifically, the behavior of taking risks in-game and using abilities you aren’t very good at. However many abilities a game might have, a given character will usually only use maybe a half dozen of them regularly. Characters tend to be specialists in RPGs, and players tend to want their characters to succeed, meaning players will want to only try things their characters are good at. This is doubly true if they only get experience points, or only move toward advancement, when they succeed. Actively rewarding failure is a good way to encourage players to have their characters try new, dangerous, and often entertaining things.

Edit: It was pointed out, correctly, that it is specifically Dungeon World that grants xp for failure, not Apocalypse World.

Ongoing Point-Buy (GURPS, WoD)

Leaving aside “leveling” altogether, there is the system where experience points are points that one can spend to improve specific abilities. This system is easier to customize, and can be less jarring. When a character levels, they often increase a number of different abilities and capacities, but with a point-buy or character point advancement system, the player can choose to improve some abilities and not others.

Often the choice for the player is whether to spend advancement points frequently on minor new abilities, or to save up the advancement points to buy more powerful abilities. In all World of Darkness games, as well as in GURPS, players are presented with this decision at the end of each session. Some players will want to advance a little bit each session, while others will save up for big abilities. Many will alternate between the two based on how they want their characters to develop.

For these and similar systems, the question for game designers becomes one of pricing. Pricing decisions can be a function of demand, how popular an ability is likely to be, as well as impact on the story. Check out what I wrote about frequency and payoff a while back, and think about how low-frequency and/or low-payoff abilities should be cheaper, in a point-buy system, than high-frequency and/or high-payoff abilities.

Advancement as Currency (Shadowrun, sometimes GURPS)

Often a subset of the point-buy system is when the points you use for advancement can also be used as in-game currency. This adds a layer of decision-making for the player, since they can either have the immediate payoff of spending a point in-game, or the quick payoff of spending the point on some small incremental advancement, or the delayed gratification of saving up for a powerful ability.

Shadowrun is the best example of this I could think of with its karma system, where you can spend karma in-game for benefits, but karma is also what you spend on new abilities for your character. GURPS has a version of this, where you can spend character points earned in play (or even left over from character creation) to do something in-game like have a suddenly wind-fall of cash. The big challenge here is human psychology. It is easy to, without thinking about it, use up a lot of your potential for advancement in-game, making up for unlucky rolls or ensuring your character shines in particular scenes. Players who don’t like to trust to luck will also tend to make more use of things like karma than others. This can lead to a discrepancy in advancement over time. Not necessarily a flaw, just something to consider.

Advancement by Use (Torchbearer, Call of Cthulhu, Skyrim)

Some games do away with experience points or character points granted for victories in the story or for certain player behaviors and simply link advancement to skill-use. The two biggest examples of this I could think of from tabletop games are Call of Cthulhu (the percentile versions) and the various games based on Burning Wheel, the most recent of which is Torchbearer. These systems take a bit more tracking than the ones above, but you don’t have to worry as much about pricing abilities or tuning the leveling system.

A system that links advancement to ability use seems to work better for less high-fantasy or high-powered games, at least where tabletop RPGs are concerned. And even in Skyrim, your Shouts are earned by completing the main storyline’s quests, or by exploring dungeons, rather than advancing based on use. In fact, that is probably a limitation on a system like this for a tabletop game – it would add a lot of complexity to do any kind of calculation – i.e., to make some abilities harder to raise than others based on use. I can also see limitations here – what to do about fantasy tropes like wizard spells, or psychic abilities, which are usually much more powerful than other abilities? Should your Cooking ability advance the same way that Fireball does? Maybe, but I can see a problem there.

Another challenge here is going to be ability-spamming. Players are going to be trying to use every conceivable ability as much as possible during a session if ability use is what is rewarded. This can have a similar effect to rewarding failure, mentioned above – it will make players branch out more in what they want their characters to try. It can also get repetitive, as in each session every character takes a moment to make a Photography roll, and then an Academics roll, and then a Gambling roll, or whatever. (I’ve definitely seen this come up in Call of Cthulhu.) A designer can find ways around this spamming issue, like limiting the total number of abilities that are counted in a given session, but it can definitely be a problem. On the other hand, this system does model reality pretty well (you get better at what you practice) and does reward a much more broad list of activities than leveling systems tend to.

Milestones (Fate Core, Parsec)

I’m sure other systems do this, but the example I came up with was Fate Core for a system that rewards characters based on reaching particular points in the story. (I mention Parsec because that game, which I designed, includes a system where players define obstacles and characters advance when those obstacles are faced in-game). A lot of video games do this with the main storyline or main quest-line – do whatever you want, take however much time you want, but you won’t advance until you get to a particular part of the story. This is, of course, significantly easier for a video game where the story is laid out ahead of time by the designers and writers.

But most games have an over-arching storyline of some sort. The DM or GM has come to the table with some kind of plan, much as players love to deviate. And a system like this could be an alternative to railroading, or designing every adventure as a box canyon. You can have more of a sandbox situation, but one that only rewards certain story milestones. Carrot rather than stick, so to speak, or honey rather than vinegar.

A story milestone system can be the way that each of the above systems are handled. The milestone could grant you a level, or character points, or a milestone could even be when the players have used a certain number of abilities in-game. In Fate Core, it functions a bit like leveling, as a milestone is a time you can improve your character as well as move abilities around or change them rather than improving them mechanically. Which brings us to…

Adjustment rather than Advancement (Spirit of the Century, Dresden Files)

In some RPGs, you don’t advance in any way that is marked on your character sheet. The story advances, and your character can change over time, but they don’t get better, or gain new abilities. Whether characters advance or not is a matter of taste, and will determine the kinds of games you play. Some games that include advancement can be played without, especially in the short term, and most games played as a one-shot will not include advancement.

Do you have more, or better, examples? Did I miss something? Let me know in the comments or on Reddit/Facebook/Twitter.


GURPS Eberron Conversion #7

Mo’ Money Mo’ Problems

Before I start converting some of the Eberron-specific equipment to GURPS values, the issue of magic items has to be addressed. In GURPS Magic it is suggested that magic items cost about $25 for every power point required to create them. Under this system, the resulting price for magic items seems to be too high for a campaign set in Eberron, considering that one of the assumption is that magical manufacturing is, if not common, then certainly widespread. For this Reason, I think that $5 per power point is more appropriate.

There is also the issue of weapon quality. In the GURPS book it says that a Fine quality weapon should cost four times the listed price ($2000 for a broadsword) and a Very Fine quality weapon should cost twenty times the listed price ($10,000 for a broadsword). In a situation where an Average person has $1000 for starting equipment, this seems a little high, especially since these items aren’t even magical, they’re just very well made.

With the Magecraft spell available to artificers and magewrights in Eberron, high-quality items will be more common becuase a crafter can magically augment his skill, meaning a much higher percentage of weaponsmiths can make masterwork-quality weapons than normal. Because of this, I prefer that Fine quality weapons cost three times the listed price and Very Fine cost ten times the listed price. The normal limitations on what weapons can be made Fine and Very Fine still apply, however, and by far the most common Fine and Very Fine weapons will be swords and perhaps bows.

As an example, adding +1 magical damage to a sword would cost $1250. You also need to have a Fine quality sword for it to be worth putting an enchantment on, and that costs $1500, for a total of $2750 (rather than $8250) for a Fine +1 broadsword (+1 to hit and +2 to damage) or $6250 (rather than $16250) for a Very Fine +1 broadsword (+2 to hit and +3 to damage) . This will make them relatively more common, and this makes sense in the Eberron setting, at least to me. They are still far beyond the means of the vast majority of the populace, but successful adventurers can be expected to have them.

Some Prices on Eberron Sourcebook Stuff
(GURPS Seems to assume that items are sized for the person in question)

Valenar double scimitar (must be Fine) $3600 sw+1 cut 5lbs

Talenta sharrash $500 sw+2 cut 7lbs

Talenta tangat [Treat as Broadsword]

Talenta/Xen’drik Boomerang (must be Fine) $1000 thr+1 same range as a javelin

Darkleaf Armor x4 cost, 1/2 weight (covers armor primarily made of metal, though full plate suits are very rare)

Leafweave Armor x4 cost, 1/2 weight (covers armor primarily made of leather)

Alchemist’s Fire/Frost/Spark/Acid $250 maybe something like 2d elemental damage with a 1 yard splash radius

Noxious Smokestick $100

Inquisitive’s Kit $300

Darkweave Clothing Comfortable Wealth level would allow this (since GURPS just assumes you have clothing that represents your wealth and status)

Glamerweave Clothing Wealthy would cover this

ID Papers $20
-with picture $120

Letter of Marque $500

Traveling Papers $10 (each time you cross national boundaries – may not cover other taxes and tariffs)

Spellcasting Services

Of course Dragonmark Houses can use their spell-like abilities, and this is probably the most common of magical service that is for sale. Even though other spellcasters, hedge wizards and the like, are probably more common, I would assume that a great way to make enemies of the Houses would be to set yourself up as an independent spellcaster for hire. If you are a spellcaster in the employ of another entity, like Morgrave University or the Church of the Silver Flame, etc., that is reflected in your pay scale which is in turn determined by your wealth/social status. Needless to say, “spellcaster” will usually be a relatively high-paying job, but if you’re poor and lack Status, you’ll just get paid less for the same spells.

As for use of Dragonmarks, I think that considering that Least Marks are relatively easy to find and Greater Marks are very rare, the cost will probably be exponentially related to the power of the mark involved – so maybe $25, $125 and $625.

Otherwise, for other spellcasters for hire, maybe the rate could be similar to Enchanting – $5 per power point required, maybe multiplied by the number of prerequisites.

Tech Level

The TL for Eberron is variable because in some cases magic augments technology and in some cases it replaces it. The TL seems to be 3+2, meaning that it is generally a 3 with modifications that bring it close to a 5 in some categories. In the categories that GURPS uses I see it as follows:

Transportation: Lightening Rail, airships, faster oceangoing vessels and riverboats, teleportation
Weapons and Armor: generally medieval but including warforged, advanced siege engines and powerful spells, grenade-like weapons
Power: bound elementals instead of steam or electricity
Biotechnology/Medicine: obviously, healing magic makes a lot of medical knowledge unnecessary, but a lot of things are curable which wouldn’t be at TL 3

GURPS Eberron Conversion #6

Action Points Adapted

In Eberron, one of the mainstays of the system are the Action Points, which enable a player to add to the total of their d20 rolls to succeed at skill checks, attacks, saving throws, etc.

In GURPS, instead of d20’s Experience and Level system you have Character Points which you spend to improve your character. To replace Action Points, I think a good rule would be to allow you to spend a Character Point a limited number of times per session to do something like add 10 to the number you are rolling against for a Skill roll or Default roll, Stat roll, etc. This way, it almost guarantees a significant success, and can help you get out of awful situations by the skin of your teeth, but doesn’t infringe on the Luck Advantages, which enable you to reroll rolls a particular number of times in a session.

The Root of All Evil

Wealth is difficult to adapt from Eberron because D&D’s economic system is so…craptastic. And so very different from GURPS, which rather than being basically arbitrary tries to represent a more accurate economy for the time.

One adaptation that I think will help in an Eberron game is to bind Wealth and Status to each other. Essentially, each level of Wealth will be 5pts more expence for the Advantage of greater wealth and will give 5 more points as a Disadvantage. This gives one reason to pay for extra Wealth, rather than getting points from being Dead Broke and then using magic spells to rob a bank, for example.

What Wealth also determines is the cost of living that you have each month, as well as the average pay you’ll get for a months’ work, during downtime for example. So, if you are Very Wealthy, but don’t put aside money for your own upkeep, you might fall in Status temporarily until you can return to the upper eschelons of Eberron society. You’ll also tend to come out of downtime with more money saved up than other PCs without the Advantage.

Otherwise, it might be best to leave money alone. If you’re an adventuring party, you’ll get paid for jobs and sometimes find some loot and can divide it however you like – but a poor kid from the wrong side of town with no social standing with a magic item is still…a poor kid from the wrong side of town. Your +1 dagger won’t get you into any country clubs, so to speak.

In the case of more significant magic items like those described in parts of the Eberron source books (elemental-bonded items, artifacts, etc.) I think I’ll employ some sort of bonding system, whereby – for the magic item to function for you, you have to bind it to youself, which may involve a ritual or a quest, but will also involve you buying an Advantage to represent the item.

Still to Come

I still need to do a more in-depth treatment of how things will work concerning prices of goods and services, considering that Eberron is based on the idea that magical ‘technologies’ are much more readily available even than in other D&D settings…(except of course for Faerun, where you have to hire the neighbor kid to shovel the Rods of Wonder out of your driveway every morning. Fortunately, the kid next door is a 30th level Wizard.)

GURPS Eberron Conversion #5

Power Investiture and Divine Domains

In the Classes post, you might notice that Power Investiture for Clerics and Druids is -20% cost. This because they cast from a limited number of Colleges depending on the deity they serve, or, in the case of Druids, because they serve the forces of nature directly.

Because Healing is supposed to be the sole purview of Divine casters in D&D (and Bards?…etc.), and this is reflected in the Eberron setting, add the Healing College to each of these lists, giving each one three ‘Domains’ total.

The Silver Flame: Fire or Protection and Warning, Necromancy (for Eberron’s Defense Against the Dark Arts teachers)

Arawai: Air, Plant
Aureon: Communication and Empathy, Knowledge
Balinor: Animal, Earth
Boldrei: Communication and Empathy, Food
Dol Arrah: Communication and Empathyl, Protection and Warning
Dol Dorn: Body Control, Making and Breaking
Kol Korran: Mind Control, Movement
Olladra: Communication and Empathy, Illusion and Creation

Devourer: Making and Breaking, Water
Fury: Body Control, Mind Control
Keeper: Knowledge, Necromancy
Mockery: Illusion and Creation, Mind Control
Shadow: Knowledge, Meta
Traveler: Illusion and Creation, Movement

Blood of Vol: Body Control, Necromancy

Dragon Below: Earth, Mind Control

Path of Light: Knowledge, Protection and Warding

Undying Court: Necromancy, Protection and Warning

Druids: Animal, Plant

–> Not listed with any Deity: Enchantment, Gate, Sound, Technological

GURPS Eberron Conversion #4

Rather than do actual full write-ups for the base Classes, I went and found some Skills and Advantages (and invented some) that would in some way replicate or represent the abilities that the base Classes all have. Using GURPS rules for the classes amounts to a nerfing of some of them because the way the system’s balance works is different. Here’s what I have so far: (invented things are in italics and are my attempts to use the GURPS rules creatively)

Barbarian: + Basic Move, Enhanced Dodge, DR +1 or +2, Danger Sense, Illiteracy (-3/language), Barbarian Rage (spend 8 Fatigue for +2 ST and +2 HT for one minute – combination of Might and Vigor) [10pts], Berserker

Bard: Enthrallment – Captivate, Persuade, Suggest, Sway Emotions; Hidden Lore, Musical Magery (-50%), Song Magery (-40%), Bardic Immunity [10]

Cleric: Blessed, True Faith, Power Investiture (-20% see Domains), Disciplines of Faith, Vows, Duty, Patron

Druid: Animal Empathy, Alternate Forms (templates around 50pts each) [15pts each], Trackless Step (Light Tread, 4 FP to cast and 1 to maintain, 10 minute duration) [5pts], Wilderness Stride (Walk Through Plants, 3FP to cast and 1 to maintain, 1 minute duration) [5pts], Power Investiture (-20%), Ally: Animal Companion, Disciplines of Faith, Vows, Duty, Patron

Fighter: Pretty straightforward – maybe Trained by a Master

Monk: Trained by a Master (and the Skills it enables you to have), + Basic Move, Enhanced Dodge, Vows, Disciplines of Faith, Esoteric Medicine, Meditation, Acrobatics, Immune to Metabolic Hazards, Unaging, DR +1, Teleport [10pts], Body of Air [10pts]

Paladin: True Faith, Leadership, Power Investiture, Vows, Disciplines of Faith, Duty, Patron, Blessing, Smite Evil (Innate Attack, Melee -30%, 1hr Recharge -30%, Common Trigger -20%) [2pts per 1d], Lay on Hands (Minor Healing, 1FP per HP up to 3, skill 12) [10pts], Luck, Ally: Mount

Ranger: Tracking, Animal Empathy, Ally: Animal Companion, Fit/Very Fit, Camoflage, Chameleon, Talent: Favored Enemy [5/lvl]

Rogue: Danger Sense, Enhanced Dodge, Sneak Attack (Innate Attack, -30% Melee, -20% Trigger) [4pts/1d]

Sorcerer/Wizard: Magery, Ally: Familliar

Artificer: Enchantment Magery, Making and Breaking Magery, Artificer Talent, Alchemy. Definitely needs work

GURPS Eberron Conversion #3

I think Feats are basically covered by Advantages and certain Skills.

So, on to Dragonmarks

Each Dragonmark exists in four levels: Least, Lesser, Greater, Sibarys. Each level is 10pts. The first level includes one of a number of spells that the character can use at will and a bonus to either a Skill or, in one case, an Active Defense. I’m mostly leaving the Sibarys mark blank for now – it might be that I need to create those from scratch.

Each level of Dragonmark makes it possible for a PC to have one level of Status higher than their Wealth level might indicate. It will also help indicate how much access they might have to aid from the House in question.

The spells function as listed in GURPS Magic except that they do not require speech or movement – the only effect is that the Dragonmark in question glows brightly. The character’s effective skill with the spell is 12 regardless of IQ, but if the character also has Magery, add their Magery level to the effective skill level. (all created using GURPS Fantasy)

Each Dragonmarked House is a 25pt Patron.

Mark of Detection
Least: Detect Magic; Acute Vision +2
Lesser: See Invisible, Identify Spell, Mage Sight
Greater: Astral Vision

Mark of Finding
Least: Find Direction; +2 Search
Lesser: Seeker
Greater: Pathfinder

Mark of Handling
Least: Beast Soother, Beast Seeker; +2 Animal Handling
Lesser: Beast Speech, Rider, Beast Link
Greater: Beast Summoning, Beast Posession

Mark of Healing
Least: Stop Bleeding, Awaken; +2 Physician
Lesser: Minor Healing, Cure Disease, Neutralize Poison
Greater: Major Healing, Restore [choose one]
Sibarys: Restoration, Regeneration

Mark of Hospitality
Least: Purify Food, Preserve Food; +2 Carousing or Diplomacy
Lesser: Create Food
Greater: Essential Food

Mark of Making
Least: Awaken Craft Spirit, Inspired Creation, +2 to one Craft Skill
Lesser: Repair, Shatterproof
Greater: Rebuild

Mark of Passage
Least: Haste, Quick March; +2 Navigation
Lesser: Teleport
Greater: Teleport Other, Rapid Journey

Mark of Scribing
Least: Copy, Message; +2 Writing
Lesser: Mind-Sending, Scribe
Greater: Gift of Letters, Communication

Mark of Sentinel
Least: Sense Danger, Watchdog; Improved Parry +1
Lesser: Shield, Armor, Missile Shield
Greater: Resist [element], Force Dome

Mark of Shadow
Least: Darkness, Simple Illusion, Illusion Disguise; +2 Stealth
Lesser: Far-Seeing, Far-Hearing, Create Object [shadow]?
Greater: Invisible Wizard Eye, Body of Shadow

Mark of Storm
Least: Predict Weather, Shape Air, Air Jet, Clouds; +2 Weather Sense
Lesser: Windstorm, Wall of Wind
Greater: Storm, Sandstorm, Rain, Snow

Mark of Warding
Least: Mage Lock, Sense Observation; +2 Observation
Lesser: Teleport Shield, Force Wall, See Secrets
Greater: ?